New web resource detailing 1,000 years of the English language launched


Most people will have ended up a little worse for wear after having one too many, however you’d probably never think of yourself as having been puggled, half-shaved or stocious.

If these words mean nothing to you then you might need to consult the new Historical Thesaurus of English (HT) web resource, which has just recently been launched. The HT is the only online resource to make every English word from the last 1,000 years and its meaning available to the public and fully searchable.

Nearly 800,000 words

The HT contains a record of nearly 800,000 words used at any point over the last millennium. It also contains links to their synonyms and records when the word came into and disappeared from use.

The new website uses information developed through the Historical Thesaurus of English Project, the printed version of which was first published in 2009 after 44 years of painstaking work by academics at the University of Glasgow. The  website is an easy to use resource for both scholars and members of the public alike.

Since it started on 15 January 1965, the HT project took 230 linguists to complete. It is the world’s only complete historical thesaurus published in any language, making it by far the largest and most complete thesaurus of English from any period.

Alongside the more obscure and archaic entries the Historical Thesaurus also contains references to various concepts and experiences that are still relevant today such as how we talk about foreigners, characterise being in love, or even how many words we have used over the centuries to describe being drunk.

The HT offers an unparalleled resource for studying the subjects, items and ideas that people talk about throughout history and the words they use to describe them. These may range from the rare or obsolete to those which have been in daily use for hundreds of years or introduced recently.

Free access

The site allows anyone to access it, answering questions such as:

How many words are there for being drunk?

193, including whittled, pottical, cup-shot, muckibus, half-shaved, sprung, malty, peloothered, and stocious.

See for more.

What concept in English has the most words representing it?

‘Immediately’, with 264 words meaning this across the last thousand years. Includes toot-suit, bang-slap, yesterday, as soon as look at you, in a whiff, off the reel, in two twos, upon the nines, presto, promiscuously, incontinently, syne.

See for more. This large category is closely followed by those for words meaning stupid (248) and excellent (224).)

How did people express affection to each other in English?

There are 103 words in the terms of endearment category, including darling (used from Old English onwards), my dove (c1386–), my ding-ding (1564-1602), mopsy (1582-1706), bawcock (1599-1862), wanton (1605-1812), bagpudding (1608), my cabbage (1840–), prawn (1895), luv (1898–), snookums (1919–), and lamb chop (1962–).

See for more, if you can stand it.

Dr Marc Alexander, Senior Lecturer in English Language and the current director of the Historical Thesaurus of English, said: “We are delighted to be able to launch this new online resource which will make the vast and completely unique contents of the Historical Thesaurus available to the public as never before.

We hope that this will be of great use to historians, writers, and linguists, but we also encourage anyone with an interest in the English language and its history – or just the history of the English-speaking peoples – to explore this fascinating resource.